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Nanostucture Physics and Fabrication
Mark Reed, Wiley Kirk
Nanostructure Physics and Fabrication contains the contributions of an interdisciplinary group of specialists in nanometer scale fabrication, physics of mesoscopic systems, electronic transport, and materials science brought together to discuss the current status of nanometer scale electronic structures. These articles provide the most current assessment of this active and growing area of interest. The introductory chapter provides comments and background material for those somewhat unfamiliar with this new area of research and serves as a condensed overview and summary of the contributions that follow.
Overview and Background: M.A. Reed and W.P. Kirk, Overview and Background. Conceptual Origins of Nanostructures: R. Landauer, Nanostructure Physics: Fashion or Depth? A.J. Leggett, Quantum and Classical Concepts at the One-Electron Level. R.A. Webb, Quantum Interference Effects in Condensed Matter Physics. Lateral Periodicity and Confinement: H.I. Smith, K. Ismail, W. Chu, A. Yen, Y.C. Ku, M.L. Schattenburg, and D.A. Antoniadis, Fabrication of Quantum-Effect Electronic Devices Using X-Ray Nanolithography. J.P. Kotthaus, Transport Properties and Infrared Excitations of Laterally Periodic Nanostructures. S.P Beaumont, Fabrication and Overgrowth of Quantum Wires and Dots for Optoelectronic Applications. M. Watt, H.E.G. Arnot, C.M.S. Torres, and S.P. Beaumont, Surface Phonon Studies of Nanostructures. W. Hansen, T.P. Smith III, J.A. Brum, J.M. Hong, K.Y. Lee, C.M. Knoedler, D.P. Kern, and L.L. Chang, Magnetic Effects in Quantum Dots. J.H. Davies, Analytic Self-Consistent Calculations for Inhomogeneous Two-Dimensional Electron Gases. G. Danan, J.S. Weiner, A. Pinczuk, J. Valladares, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, Optical Investigation of a One-Dimensional Electron Gas. S. Bandyopadhyay, Quantum Phase Coherent Effects in the Photoluminescence Spectra of Disordered Mesoscopic Structures. J.A. Nixon, J.H. Davies, and J.R. Barker, Fluctuations in Sub-Micron Semiconducting Devices Caused by the Random Positions of Dopants. W.B. Kinard, M.H. Weichold, G.F. Spencer, and W.P. Kirk, Laterally Confined Resonant Tunneling Diode with Adjustable Quantum-Dot Cross-Section. G. Neofotistos, K. Diff, and J.D. Gunton, Time-Dependent Modeling of Resonant Tunneling Structures Using the 3-Dimenensional Schrodinger Equation: Investigation of the Intrinsic Time Characteristics of a Zero-Dimensional Semiconductor Nanostructure. S.E. Ulloa, Y.C. Lee, and B.S. Mendoza, Interlevel Plasmons in Quasi-One-Dimensional Structures. Quantum Devices and Transistors: D. van der Marel, Theory of the Quantum Ballistic Transport in Constrictions and Quantum Resonance Devices. F. Sols, M. Macucci, U. Ravaioli, and K. Hess, Criteria for Transister Action Based on Quantum Interference Phenomena. D.C. Miller, R.K. Lake, S. Datta, M.S. Lundstrom, M.R. Melloch, and R. Reifenberger, Modulation of the Conductance of T-Shaped Electron Waveguide Structures with a Remote Gate. T. Hiramoto, T. Odagiri, K. Hirakawa, Y. Iye, and T. Ikoma, Anomalous Drain Conductance in Quasi-One-Dimensional AlGaAs/GaAs Quantum Wire Transistors Fabricated by Focused Ion Beam Implantation. S. Bandyopadhyay, G.H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, Quantum Devices Based on Phase Coherent Lateral Quantum Transport. U.K. Reddy, G.I. Haddad, I. Mehdi, and R.K. Mains, Fabrication and Room Temperature Operation of a Resonant Tunneling Transistor with a Pseudomorphic InGaAs Base. J.M. Ryan, J. Han, A.M. Kriman, D.K. Ferry, and P. Newman, Overshoot Saturation in Ultra-Short Channel FETs due to Minimum Acceleration Lengths. S. Bhobe, W. Porod, S. Bandyopadhyay, and D.J. Kirkner, Tailoring Transport Properties by Wavefunction Engineering in Quantum Wells and Its Device Applications. I. Mehdi and G.I. Haddad, InP Based Resonant Tunneling Diodes for Millimeter-Wave-Power Generation. R. Bertoncini, A.M. Kriman, and D.K. Ferry, Field/Scattering Interaction Quantization in High-Field Quantum Transport. Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Response in Nanoelectronic Structures: A.F.J. Levi and S. Schmitt-Rink, Nonequilibrium Electron Dynamics in Small Semiconductor Structures. M. Heiblum, Ballistic Transport in the Vertical and Horizontal Domains. W.R. Frensley, Quantum Kinetic Theory of Nanoelectronic Devices. S. Datta and M.J. McLennan, Quantum Transport with Dissipation: Linear and Non-linear Response. J.R. Barker, Theory of Quantum Transport in Lateral Nanostructures. M.L. Leadbeater, E.S. Alves, L. Eaves, M. Henini, O.H. Hughes, F.W. Sheard, and G.A. Toombs, High Magnetic Field Studies of Intrinsic Bistability, Electron Thermalization and Ballistic Effects in Resonant Tunneling Devices. B.Y-K. Hu, J.W. Wilkins, and S.K. Sarker, Quantum Transport Equation Approach to Nonequilibrium Screening. C. Lent, S. Sivaprakasam, and D.J. Kirkner, Calculation of Ballistic Transport in Two-Dimensional Quantum Structures Using the Finite Element Method. K. Diff, G. Neofotistos, H. Guo, and J.D. Gunton, Resonant Tunneling in Double-Barrier Diodes. W.W. Lui and J. Frey, A Simplified Method for Quantum Size Effect Analysis in Sub-Micron Devices Including Fermi-Dirac Statistics. R.L. Kamocsai and W. Porod, A Monte Carlo Study of the Influence of Traps on High Field Electronic Transport in a SiO2. J.A. St alovneng and E.H. Hauge, Tunneling Times and the B aduttiker-Landauer Model. R.A. Serota and J. Yu, Variance Fluctuations and Sample Statistics for Fluctuating Variable-Range Hopping Conduction. Quantum Wires and Ballistic Point Contacts: M. B aduttiker, When is the Hall Resistance Quantized? G. Timp, R. Behringer, S. Sampere, J.E. Cunningham, and R.E. Howard, When Isn't the Conductance of an Electron Waveguide Quantized? H. van Houten and C.W.J. Beenakker, Electron Beams and Waveguide Modes: Aspects of Quantum Ballistic Transport. B.J. van Wees, L.P. Kouwenhoven, E.M.M. Willems, and C.J.P.M. Harmans, Quantum Ballistic Transport in High Magnetic Fields. A.D. Stone, A. Szafer, and H.U. Baranger, New Theoretical Results on Ballistic Quantum Transport: Quenching of the Hall Resistance and Quantized Contact Resistance. Y. Imry, Theoretical Considerations for Some New Effects in Narrow Wires. C.J.B. Ford, The Low-Field Hall Effect in Quasi-Ballistic Wires. A. Sachrajda, D. Landheer, R. Boulet, J. Stalica, and T. Moore, Evidence for an Inhomogeneity Size Effect in Micron Size GaAs/A1GaAs Constrictions. S.D. Berger, H.A. Huggins, A.E. White, K.T. Short, and D. Loretto, A New Technique to Produce Single Crystal Epitaxial Nanostructures. M. Cahay, S. Bandyopadhyay, and H.L. Grubin, Doubled Frequency of the Conductance Minima in Electrostatic Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations in One-Dimensional Rings. A. Pruisken and Z. Wang, Mesoscopic Conductance Fluctuations in Disordered Metals. Related Fabrication and Phenomena: A.N. Broers, Resolution Limits of Electron Beam Lithography and Methods for Avoiding These Limits. A. Scherer, M.L. Roukes, and B.P. Van der Gang, Quantum Device Microfabrication at the Resolution Limit of Ion Beam Processing. E.E. Ehrichs and A.L. de Lozanne, Fabrication of Nanometer Features with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope. A.E. Owen, P.J.S. Ewen, A. Zakery, M.N. Kozicki, and Y. Khawaja, Metal-Chalcogenide Photoresists for High Resolution Lithography and Sub-Micron Structures. D.C. Ralph, K.S. Ralls, and R.A. Buhrman, Defect Motion, Electromigration and Conductance Fluctuations in Metal Nanocontacts. C.R. Martin, M.J. Tierney, I.F. Cheng, L.S. Van Dyke, Z. Cai, J.R. McBride, and C.J. Brumlik, Nano- and Microstructures in Chemistry, Electrochemistry, and Materials Science. C. Van Haesendonck, H. Vloeberghs, Y. Bruynseraede, and R. Jonckheere, Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic AuFe Spin-Glasses. N. Giordano, Nature of the Superconducting Transition in Very Thin Wires. L. Reggiani and V. Kozlov, Population Inversion in Superconducting Quantum Wells Under Ballistic Conditions. A. Badakhshan, C. Durbin, A. Giordana, R. Glosser, S.A. Lambert, and J. Liu, Photoreflectance of Semiconductors Beyond the Band Gap. M. Cahay, M.A. Osman, H.L. Grubin, and M. McLennan, Space-Charge Effects in Compositional and Effective-Mass Superlattices. G.Y. Hu and R.F. O'Connell, 1/f Noise in Two-Dimensional Mesoscopic Systems from a Generalized Quantum Langevin Equation Approach. NPF Symposium Participants. Author Index.