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System Requirements Analysis

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System Requirements Analysis

Jeffrey Grady

ISBN 012088514X
Pages 480

Systems Requirement Analysis gives the professional systems engineer the tools to set up a proper and effective analysis of the resources, schedules and parts that will be needed in order to successfully undertake and complete any large, complex project. The text offers the reader the methodology for rationally breaking a large project down into a series of stepwise questions so that a schedule can be determined and a plan can be established for what needs to be procured, how it should be obtained, and what the likely costs in dollars, manpower and equipment will be in order to complete the project at hand.

Systems Requirement Analysis is compatible with the full range of engineering management tools now popularly used, from project management to competitive engineering to Six Sigma, and will ensure that a project gets off to a good start before itís too late to make critical planning changes. The book can be used for either self-instruction or in the classroom, offering a wealth of detail about the advantages of requirements analysis to the individual reader or the student group.

PART 1, Introduction 1.1 Introduction to system requirements analysis 1.1.1 The Human Foundation 1.1.2 What is a System? 1.1.3 What is System Development? 1.1.4 The Fundamental System Relation 1.1.5 What is System Requirements Analysis? 1.1.6 System Requirements Analysis Timing Considerations 1.1.7 Development Approaches 1.1.8 Degree of Precedence Alternatives 1.1.9 Organizational Alternatives 1.1.10 Data Environment Alternatives 1.1.11 Some History and References 1.1.12 Overview of the Book How it Came to Be The Remainder of This Part The Other Parts of This Book 1.1.13 How to Get the Most Out of the Book 1.2 System Development Process Overview 1.2.1 The Ultimate Process Step - The Enterprise Vision 1.2.2 Product Line Effects 1.2.3 Customer Base Effects 1.2.4 Structured Process Analysis and Process Definition Expansion 1.2.5 Documentation Media 1.2.6 Lower Tier Development Functionality Grand Systems Requirements Program Integration Initial System Analysis Publish Specifications Traditional Structured Analysis Computer Software Structured Analysis Validate Requirements 1.2.7 Grand Systems Synthesis Design Grand System Item Team Preliminary Design Item Team Detailed Design Material Operations Manufacture System 1.2.8 Grand Systems Verification 1.2.9 Grand Systems Sustainment Logistically Support System Deploy/Deliver Product System Modify Product System Dispose of System 1.2.10 Use Product System 1.2.11 Manage Program 1.2.12 Assure Product and Process Quality 1.3 Process variations 1.3.1 The Situation The Central Model DoD Process Rationale Other U.S. Government Life Cycle Models Commercial Firm Future The JOG System Engineering Prescription For Specifications Template Preparation Map Templates to Functional Departments Map Templates to Structured Analysis Models Provide For Configuration Management of the Model Base Perform Structured Analysis on Programs Allocate All Requirements to Product Architecture Coordinate RAS-Complete with Template Structure Capture Modeling Work Products in SDD 1.3.2 Alternative Sequence Models 1.3.3 Concentrated Versus Distributed Customer Base 1.3.4 Precedented Versus Unprecedented Systems 1.3.5 The Three Gross Models 1.3.6 The Lowest Common Denominator PART 2, Requirements Foundation 2.1 Requirements Fundamentals 2.1.1 Primitive Requirements Statement The Essence of a Requirement Document Style and Format Primitive Requirement Statement Conversion Total Effect of Changes Variations Document Example 2.1.2 Requirements Value Definition Methods Why is Quantification Important? Value Definition Methods 2.1.3 Requirements Derivation 2.1.4 Kinds of Requirements Performance Requirements Design Constraints What is a Design Constraint Design Constraints Analysis Timing Major Design Constraint Categories 2.1.5 Requirements In Time 2.1.6 The Remaining Road 2.2 Requirements Traceability Relationships 2.2.1 Requirements Are Not Islands 2.2.2 Vertical Traceability Requirements Source Traceability Requirements Rationale Traceability Requirements Traceability and Allocation/Flowdown Parent-Child Requirements Traceability Why Traceability? Traceability Mechanism Traceability Across Interfaces Multiple Traceability Paths 2.2.3 Longitudinal Traceability 2.2.4 Requirements Traceability To Process Single Sheet Traceability to Process Specification Template Traceability 2.2.5 Grand System Traceability 2.2.6 Traceability Reporting 2.2.7 Traceability Audits 2.3 Requirements Allocation, margins and budget 2.3.1 Requirement Value Determination 2.3.2 Requirements Allocation 2.3.3 Margin Management What Are Formal Margins? Selection and Maintenance of Design Margin Parameters Safety Margins Inclusion of Margin Accounts in Requirements Data Design Margin Account Transfers 2.3.4 Budget Management 2.4 Requirements Analysis Strategies 2.4.1 The Four Strategies 2.4.2 Freestyle Strategy 2.4.3 Cloning Strategy Specification Standards Like Item Approach Parent Item, Flowdown, or Allocation Approach Flowdown Scope Limitation 2.4.4 Question and Answer Strategy 2.3.5 Structured Analysis Strategy PART 3, Traditional Structured Analysis 3.1 System Beginnings 3.1.1 What's In a Name? 3.1.2 In the Beginning 3.1.3 The Meaning of the Term 3.1.4 Unprecedented System Definition Customer Interaction Mission and Operations Analysis MOE and Selection Criteria Development Requirements Work System Environmental Definition Specialty Discipline Analyses Concept and Program Design Manage the Study Program Funding Profile Requirements 3.1.5 Trade Studies Trade Study Mechanics Post Selection Tasks 3.1.6 Rigor Versus Creativity 3.1.7 Precedented System Definition 3.1.8 Concluding Reviews 3.2 A General Theory of Structured Analysis 3.2.1 What is Structured Analysis 3.2.2 Structured Development Goals 3.2.3 Where Does It Appear in the Process 3.2.4 Comparative Overview of Approaches 3.2.5 Poly-Faceted View of Problem Spaces 3.2.6 Entry Facet Differences 3.2.7 An Entry Continuum 3.2.8 Model Documentation 3.2.9 Completeness and Avoiding Model Madness 3.2.10 Detailed Coverage of Models 3.3 Functional Analysis 3.3.1 The Heritage of Structured Analysis 3.3.2 Form Follows Function 3.3.3 Functional Flow Analysis Function Identification and Sequence The Top Function Life Cycle Master Flow Diagram Flow Diagramming Details Detailed Flow Diagrams Functional N-Square Diagramming Performance Requirements Analysis Allocation Pacing Independent Mode Instant Allocation Mode Progressive Allocation Mode Layered Approach 3.4 Product and Process Performance Requirements, Analysis and Allocation 3.4.1 Preliminaries Product Performance Requirements Analysis Process Performance Requirements Analysis 3.4.2 Requirements Development Strategies 3.4.3 The General Plan 3.4.4 Transition to Process Analysis 3.4.5 Primitive Statement and Transform 3.4.6 Value Identification 3.4.7 Product Class Differences Product Computer Software Operational and Logistics Task Analysis Product Facilities Composite Product Objects 3.4.8 Guidelines 3.4.9 Verification Planning Analysis (VPA) Overview Development Evaluation Test Requirements Analysis Item Qualification Verification Requirements Analysis System Test and Evaluation Requirements Analysis Item Acceptance Test Requirements Analysis 3.4.10 Logistics Support Analysis 3.4.11 Allocation of Functionality Team Briefing Review Past Allocations Brainstorming and Analysis Consolidation New Architecture Identification Engineering Review Meeting Overall Coordination Allocation Criteria Guidance Additional Performance Requirements Analysis Examples Performance Requirements Analysis Example 1 Performance Requirements Analysis Example 2 Performance Requirements Analysis Example 3 Performance Requirements Analysis Example 4 3.4.12 Performance Requirements Analysis Preceding Function Allocation 3.4.13 RAS-Centered Requirements Analysis 3.4.14 Process Summary 3.5 Architecture Synthesis 3.5.1 Introduction to Architecture 3.5.2 Architecture Block Diagramming 3.5.3 Diagramming Fundamentals 3.5.4 Architecture Element Coding 3.5.5 Sheet Cross-Referencing 3.5.6 Alternative Organizational Structures 3.5.7 Implementation Notes and Responsibility 3.5.8 Architecture Crossing Conditions 3.5.9 Reversing Traditional Structured Analysis 3.6 Interface Identification and Definition 3.6.1 Introduction to Interface Analysis Interface Defined The Interface Dilemma The Solution 3.6.2 Interface Identification Intuitive Interface Identification A Thoroughly Disciplined Method 3.6.3 Identification Work Products N-Square Diagramming Methods Schematic Methods Interface Dictionary 3.6.4 Interface Media and Requirements Definition Electrical Power Example Electrical Signal Example Physical Attachment Example Fluid Transmission Example 3.6.5 Interface Documentation Capture in the Requirements Analysis Sheet and Database System Interface Definition Publication 3.6.6 Interface Responsibility Program Organization Three Views of Interface Interface Responsibility Model The Special Need for External Interface Development 3.7 Specialty Engineering Requirements Analysis 3.7.1 Serial Versus Parallel Work Pattern 3.7.2 The Generic Specialty Engineering Process Requirements Identification Responsibility Aid Requirements Capture Freestyle Approach Cloning Approach Question and Answer Approach The Structured Strategy in Years Gone By Structured Analysis in the 21st Century Constraints Integration Specialty Constraints Communication Checklist Approach Individual Person-To-Person Organized Interaction Meetings Decision Support Specialty Design Assessment Non-Compliance Identification Non-Compliance Correction 3.7.3 Engineering Specialty Activities Overview Reliability Engineering Task 1, Reliability Program Plan Task 2, Subcontractor and Supplier Control Task 3, Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) Task 4, Failure Review Board (FRB) Task 5, Reliability Modeling Task 6, Reliability Allocations Task 7, Reliability Predictions Task 8, Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) Task 9, Reliability Critical Items & Critical Item Control Plan Task 10, Reliability Development, Growth and Test (RDG&T) Plan Task 11, Sneak Circuit Analysis Reliability References Parts, Materials, and Process Engineering (PMP) Maintainability Engineering Task 1 Maintainability Analysis Task 2, Document Maintainability Requirements and Criteria Task 3, Maintainability Quantitative Analysis to Assure Requirements are Met Task 4, Design Surveillance/Assessment Task 5, Participate In Design Tradeoff Studies Task 6, Participate In Design Reviews Task 7, Subcontractor and Supplier Control Task 8, Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action Task 9, Conduct Maintainability Demonstration Maintainability References Availability Producibility Engineering Design To Cost/Life Cycle Cost (DTC/LCC) Human Factors Engineering Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPC) System Safety Engineering Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Engineering System Security Engineering Mass Properties Engineering Environmental Impact Engineering 3.7.4 Science Projects and Natural Systems The Ultimate System Diagram Give Us the Sense to Know the Difference Characterizing Reality Specific Science Development Programs 3.8 Environmental Requirements Analysis 3.8.1 Overview 3.8.2 Environmental Categories Natural Environment (QN) Self-Induced Environment (QI) Non-Cooperative Environment (QX) Hostile Environment (QH) Cooperative Environment (QC) 3.8.3 Environmental Requirements Models System Environmental Requirements Analysis End Item Environmental Requirements Component Environmental Requirements 3.8.4 Time Analysis Diagramming Fundamentals Timeline Diagram Symbols Variability Selectivity Tabular Timelines Timeline Reporting 3.8.5 Environmental Requirements Capture 3.8.6 Environmental Impact 3.9 Functional Analysis Alternatives 3.9.1 Variations Covered 3.9.2 Functional Analysis Variations Hierarchical Functional Analysis Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagramming Trigger Construct Multiple Exit Function Iteration Loop Kill Branch Lateral Data or Commodity Flow Behavioral Diagramming IDEF-0 FRAT 3.9.3 State and Event Analysis State Transition Diagram Analysis Finite State Machines Petri Nets Event Traces, Lists, and Trees 3.9.4 Mathematical Models Mathematical Equations Formal Methods 3.9.5 Scenarios, Strings, and Events Analysis Scenario Depictions Icon Flow Descriptive Text Strings or Threads Synthesis of Functional Threads 3.9.6 Process Analysis Process Fundamentals Diagramming Process-Resource Linkage Process-Environment Linkage Process Analysis Applications Generic Enterprise and Program Planning Generic Process Analysis Program Specific Process Continuing Cost and Schedule Requirements Analysis Program Product-Oriented Processes Specialty Engineering Integration and Concurrent Engineering Program Material and Procurement Process Analysis Program Manufacturing and Quality Process Analysis Program Verification Process Analysis Test Planning Analysis (TPA) Development Test Requirements Analysis Qualification Test Requirements Analysis Operational Test Requirements Analysis Acceptance Test Requirements Analysis Deployment Planning Analysis (DPA) System Sustainment Process Analysis Logistics Support Analysis Overview LSA Example Product Operation Analysis Modification Development Disposal Analysis 3.9.7 Quality Function Deployment Introduction to Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Physical Implementation A Problem With QFD Linking QFD With Structured Analysis Derived Requirements Generator 3.10 Ras-Complete and Ras-Centered Analysis 3.10.1 A System Defined 3.10.2 Descriptors of Interest 3.10.3 System Functionality 3.10.4 Performance Requirements Derivation and Allocation 3.10.5 Conventional RAS Limitations 3.10.6 The Beginning of the Complete RAS 3.10.7 System Architecture 3.10.8 Allocation Pacing Alternatives 3.10.9 System Relations 3.10.10 The System Environment 3.10.11 Environmental Relation Algorithm System Environmental Relations End Item Service Use Profile Component Environmental Relations 3.10.12 Specialty Engineering and RAS Complete 3.10.13 Verification Extension 3.10.14 Conclusions 3.11 Traditional Structured Analysis Documentation 3.11.1 The Common Failure 3.11.2 SDD Content and Format Document Main Body Appendix A, Functional Analysis Appendix B, System Environment Analysis Appendix C, System Architecture Analysis Appendix D, System Interface Analysis Appendix E, Specialty Engineering Definition Analysis Appendix F, System Process Analysis Appendix G, Requirements Analysis Sheet 3.11.3 Recommended Responsibility Pattern PART 4, Computer Software Structured Analysis 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Computer Software Development Environment 4.1.2 Software Development Models For Analysis 4.1.3 Model Comparisons 4.1.4 Design and Manufacturing Differences 4.1.5 Software Deficit Disorder 4.2 Computer Processing Oriented Analysis 4.2.1 A Little History 4.2.2 Flow Charts and Other Things 4.2.3 Modern Structured Analysis 4.2.4 Hatley-Pirbhai Real Time Extension 4.2.5 Transform From Models to Software Entities and Their Requirements 4.2.6 Are These Models Only Appropriate For Software? 4.3 Data Oriented Analysis 4.3.1 Data Augmentation of Modern Structured Analysis Data Lines, Stores, and Dictionaries Entity Relationship Diagrams 4.3.2 Relational Database Development Relational Database Development Using Table Normalization Relational Database Development Using IDEF 1X 4.3.3 Transition to Specification 4.3.4 DoD Architecture Framework 4.4 Object Oriented Analysis 4.4.1 The Early Combined Analysis Techniques Input-Process-Output (IPO) Analysis SADT and IDEF-0 4.4.2 Early Object Oriented Analysis A Dynamic Beginning Misplaced Beginnings The Class and Object Model The Dynamic Model The Functional Model 4.4.3 Function-Driven Early OOA 4.4.4 Unified Modeling Language (UML) Problem Space Entry and Continuation Dynamic Model Elements Use Case Diagram Statechart Diagram Activity Diagram Collaboration Diagram Sequence Diagram Static Model Elements Class and Object Diagrams Component and Deployment Diagrams Unprecedented Application Precedented Application 4.4.5 Moving to Specification 4.5 System Modeling Using the DOD Architecture Framework 4.5.1 Background 4.5.2 Overview 4.5.3 Framework Products All Views Overview and Summary Information (AV-1) Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) Operational Architecture Views High Level Operational Concept Graphic (OV-1) Operational Node Connectivity Description (OV-2) Operational Information Exchange Matrix (OV-3) Organizational Relationships Chart (OV-4) Activity Model (OV-5) Operational Activity Sequence and Timing Descriptions (OV-6) Operational Rules Model (OV-6a) Operational State Transition Description (OV-6b) Operational Event/Trace Description (OV-6c) Logical Data Model (OV-7) Systems View System Interface Description (SV-1) Systems Communications Description (SV-2) Systems-Systems Matrix (SV-3) Systems Functionality Description (SV-4) Operational Activity to System Function Traceability Matrix (SV-5) Systems Data Exchange Matrix (SV-6) Systems Performance Parameters Matrix (SV-7) Systems Evolution Description (SV-8) Systems Technology Forecast (SV-9) System Activity Sequence and Timing Descriptions (SV-10) Physical Schema (SV-11) Technical Standards View Technical Architecture Profile (TV-1) Standards Technology Forecast (TV-2) 4.5.4 Other Related Efforts 4.5.5 Architecture Product Interrelationships Operational View Relationships Systems View Relationships Operations to Systems View Traceabilities 4.5.6 The Six-Step Architecture Description Process Determine Intended Use of the Architecture Determine Architecture Scope, Context, Environment, and Assumptions Determine What Information the Architecture Description Needs to Capture Determine Views and Products to be Built Build the Requisite Products Use the Architecture For Intended Purpose 4.6 Structured Analysis Fusion 4.6.1 Functional Flow or Die! 4.6.2 Structured Analysis Boundaries 4.6.3 Multiple Paths Decomposition Methodology Flexibility Functional Traceability 4.6.4 Expanding Zig Zag 4.6.5 Evolution of the Ultimate Method 4.6.6 Model Driven Development PART 5, Specification Content Standards 5.1 Specification Development Fundamentals 5.1.1 Overview What is a Specification? Specification Format Control Document Controls The Case For Uniformity 5.1.2 DoD Specifications Under MIL-STD-490A MIL-STD-490A Specification Types Type A System/Segment Specification Type B Development Specifications Type B1 Prime Item Development Specification Type B2 Critical Item Development Specification Type B3 Non-Complex Item Development Specification Type B4 Facility or Ship Development Specification Type B5 Software Development Specification Type C Product Specifications Type C1 Prime Item Product Specifications Type C1a Prime Item Product Function Specification Type C1b Prime Item Product Fabrication Specification Type C2 Critical Item Product Specifications Type C2a Critical Item Product Function Specification Type C2b Critical Item Product Fabrication Specification Type C3 Non-complex Item Product Fabrication Specification Type C4 Inventory Item Specification Type C5 Software Product Specification Type D Process Specifications Type E Material Specifications DoD Specification Forms Under MIL-S-83490 Coordinated MIL-STD-490A References MIL-STD-490A Specification Baselines Functional Configuration Identification Allocated Configuration Identification Product Configuration Identification 5.1.3 MIL-STD-961D Specification Standard Specification Types Structure and Content 5.1.4 MIL-STD-961E 5.1.5 Other Requirements Document Types 5.1.6 Coverage of Specifications General Specification Detail Specification 5.1.7 One and Two Part Specifications 5.1.8 A Strange Specification Format 5.2 General Specification Style guide 5.2.1 Style, Format, and Identification of Specifications Sectional Arrangement of Specifications Language Style Primitive Requirement Statement Capitalization and Spelling Abbreviations Symbols Proprietary Names Commonly Used Words and Phrasing Use of Shall