temporarily out of stock
MEMBRANES FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND RE-USE
S. Judd, Bruce Jefferson
There is increasing political and environmental pressure on industry to clean up the water which it uses in many processes, and to re-use this water where possible. This cleaning is done using specially-developed industrial membranes and this book covers the types and design of membranes, how they work and in which industries they are used. Special attention is paid to the textile, food/ beverage, pharmaceutical, oil and pulp and paper industries where such membranes are in regular use.
Chapter 1 - Introduction 1.1 Water reuse motivations and barriers 1.2 Industrial water 1.3 Membrane technology Chapter 2 - Membrane technology 2.1 The membrane 2.1.1 Membrane and membrane process definition 2.1.2 Membrane structure 2.1.3 Membrane materials and their manufacture 2.1.4 Membrane configurations 2.2 The process fundamentals 2.2.1 Process performance definitions 2.2.2 The driving force 2.2.3 Factors opposing the driving force 2.2.4 Critical flux 2.3 The theory 2.3.1 Membrane mass transfer control 2.3.2 Fouling/cake layer mass transfer control 2.4 Process design and operation 2.4.1 Staging 2.4.2 Specific energy demand 2.4.3 Fouling and pretreatment 2.4.4 Backwashing and cleaning References Chapter 3 - Industrial Waters 3.1 The power industry:water requirements for power generation and cooling water 3.1.1 Water demand by the power industry 3.1.2 Overview of cooling water systems 3.1.3 Overview of boiler feedwater systems 3.1.4 Sources of water used for 3.1.5 Wter quality comparisons 3.1.6 Optimisation of water use in recirculating cooling systems 3.1.7 Cooling tower water quality issues 3.1.8 Governing legislation and guidelines 3.1.9 Volumes and quality of aqueous process waster streams 3.1.10 Current reuse practices and opportunities References 3.2 The pulmp and paper industry 3.2.1 Introduction 3.2.2 Pulping and paper manufacturing processes 3.2.3 Effluent volumes and quality 3.2.4 Current water and effluent purification systems and governing legislation 3.2.5 Membranes in the pulp and paper industry 3.2.6 Conclusions Acknowledgements References 3.3 The textile industry 3.3.1 Categories of textile processing operations 3.3.2 Effluents from textile processing unit operations 3.3.3 Process water quality requirements 3.3.4 Legislation 3.3.5 Conventional treatment 3.3.6 Demand management 3.3.7 Reuse practice and opportunities References 3.4 The beverage industry 3.4.1 Point of use recycling opportunities 3.4.2 End of pipe recovery opportunities References 3.5 Pure waters in the pharmaceutical industry 3.5.1 Background 3.5.2 Water quality standards 3.5.3 Volumes and quality of aqueous process and waste streams 3.5.4 Reuse opportunities Chapter 4 - System design aids 4.1 Computer-aided design for reverse osmosis plant 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Key elements of the reverse osmosis process 4.1.3 RO design software 4.1.4 Cost calculation 4.1.5 Overview References 4.2 Water pinch analysis 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Water pinch: the history 4.2.3 Methodology 4.2.4 Computed solutions 4.2.5 Software tools currently available 4.2.6 Case study: water pinch and implementation of regeneration techniques 4.2.7 Conclusion References 4.3 Design examples 4.3.1 Problem in reverse osmosis: film theory and energy demand 4.3.2 Problem in reverse osmosis: array design 4.3.3 Problem in reverse osmosis: CAD array design 4.3.4 Problem in electrodialyis: energy demand 4.3.5 Problem in submerged membrane filtration design Chapter 5 - Case Studies 5.1 Flag Fen high-purity water production plant (UK) 5.1.1 Background 5.1.2 Description of plant 5.1.3 Performance 5.2 Eraring Power Station: purification of secondary sewage for boiler feedwater (Australia) 5.2.1 Background 5.2.2 Description of plant 5.2.3 Performance 5.3 Doswell combined cycle power plant: zero liquid discharge (USA) 5.3.1 Background 5.3.2 Description of system 5.3.3 Performance 5.4 VHP Ugchelen: paper mill water recycling (Netherlands) 5.4.1 Background 5.4.2 Description of system 5.4.3 Performance 5.5 Kronospan Ltd: medium-density fibreboard wash water recycling (UK) 5.5.1 Background 5.5.2 Description of plant 5.5.3 Performance 5.6 M-Real Kirkniemi paper mill (England) 5.6.1 Background 5.6.2 Description of plant 5.6.3 Performance 5.7 T. Forsell and Son: dyewaste water recycling plant (UK) 5.7.1 Background 5.7.2 Description of plant 5.7.3 Performance 5.8 N food plant wasterwater treatment and recycling plant (Japan) 5.8.1 Background 5.8.2 Description of plant 5.8.3 Performance 5.9 Pasfrost vegetable processing plant (Belgium) 5.9.1 Background 5.9.2 Description of plant 5.9.3 Performance 5.10 Automotive water recycling (Germany) 5.10.1 Background 5.10.2 Plant description 5.10.3 Performance 5.11 NEC Semiconductors: microelectronics wastewater reclamation (UK) 5.11.1 Background 5.11.2 Description of plant 5.11.3 Performance 5.12 Discussion 5.13 Reference material