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ADDITIVES FOR PLASTIC HANDBOOK SECOND EDITION
Both technically and economically, additives form a large and increasingly significant part of the polymer industry, both plastics and elastomers. Since the first edition of this book was published, there have been wide-ranging developments, covering chemistry and formulation of new and more efficient additive systems and the safer use of additives, both by processors in the factory and, in the wider field, as they affect the general public.
This new edition follows the successful formula of its predecessor, it provides a comprehensive view of all types of additives, concentrating mainly on their technical aspects (chemistry/formulation, structure, function, main applications) with notes on the commercial background of each. The field has been expanded to include any substance that is added to a polymer to improve its use, so including reinforcing materials (such as glass fibre), carbon black and titanium dioxide.
This is a book which has been planned for ease of use and the information is presented in a way which is appropriate to the users' needs.
INTRODUCTION 1 - AN OVERVIEW OF ADDITIVES Types and uses of additives; The main effect of additives on the properties of a compound; Main types of additive for plastics, and their functions. 2 - OVERVIEW: TYPES AND MAIN TECHNICAL TRENDS Current lines of development: fillers, pigments, plasticisers, stabilisers, flame retardants; Special additives, antistatic and conductive additives, food contact and medical additives, clarifiers, nucleating agents, compatibilisers; Multi-functional formulations; Masterbatches; Dendritic polymers. 3 - OVERVIEW: THE WORLD MARKET World consumption of additives; World production and consumption of major thermoplastics, 1999-2005 ('000 tonnes); The market for masterbatch; Commercial trends; Growth of specialist compounders; Regional factors; Recent mergers and takeovers in the additives sector (1997-2000). Modifying specific properties: mechanical properties: 4 - FILLERS Effect of fillers: mechanical properties, thermal properties, moisture content, reinforcement mechanism of fillers - Factors for compounding, aggregation of fillers - Types of fillers: calcium carbonate, kaolin, magnesium hydroxide (talc), wollastonite, silica, metal powders, microspheres, expandable microspheres, cellulose fillers - Surface modification: particle geometry, coating - Nano technology, processing nanocomposites - Commercial trends. Modifying specific properties: mechanical properties: 5 - REINFORCEMENTS Fibres - the basic properties; Types of reinforcing fibre: aramid, carbon/graphite, glass fibre, E-CR glass, polyester, hybrid fibres; Other fibres: asbestos, boron, nylon; Natural fibres; Forms of reinforcement; Long fibre reinforcement; New developments; Commercial trends. Modifying specific properties: colour and appearance: 6 - PIGMENTS, DYESTUFFS, SPECIAL EFFECTS Main types of pigment and colourant: mixed metal oxides, dyes, liquid colours; Addition of colourants; Replacement of cadmium; Special effects: aluminium, pearlescents, light interference pigments, fluorescents, thermochromic and photochromic; Laser marking; Pigment dispersants; Multifunctional systems; Pigments for engineering plastics; Effect of pigments on dimensions; Recent developments; Commercial trends. Modifying specific properties: appearance: 7 - PIGMENTS: BLACK AND WHITE Types of white pigment: titanium dioxide, surface treatments, opacity and tinting strength; zinc sulphide; Other white pigments and extenders; Properties of white pigments and fillers; White masterbatch; New developments; Black pigments: carbon black, Effect of particle size and structure on properties; Testing for properties; Other black pigments; Black masterbatch; Recent developments; Commercial trends: titanium dioxide, carbon black. Modifying specific properties: resistance to heat: 8 - HEAT STABILISERS How they work; Polymer heat-stabilisers selection guide; Antioxidants: primary, secondary; Blends; Replacement of heavy metals; Effect of silica; Benzoxazolone derivatives; New chemistry for stabilisers: lactone chemistry, Vitamin E; Recent developments; Other stabilisers. Modifying specific properties: resistance to light: 9 - UV STABILISERS How they work; UV screening pigments; Absorbers; Energy transfer agents/quenchers; Hindered amine light stabilisers; Synergists with HALS; Polymeric stabilisers; Blends; Replacement of heavy metals; UV-stabilisers selection guide; Selection of antioxidants for use with UV stabilisers; New chemistry; Recent developments. Modifying specific properties: flammability: 10 - FLAME RETARDANT ADDITIVES How they work; Summary of the main FR additives: reactive, additive; Halogenated compounds: chlorinated, brominated; Other flame retardants: melamine cyanurate (MC); Phosphorus; Effect of individual fillers; Combinations of flame retardants; Synergistic reactions; Intumescents; Halogen-free systems; Health and the environment: Recycling; New developments: Nanocomposites; Commercial trends. Modifying specific properties: conductivity: 11 - ANTISTATIC/CONDUCTIVE ADDITIVES Classification of antistatic additives; Conductive additives; ESD (electrostatic discharge) compounds; EMI (electromagnetic interference) compounds; Metallic additives; Comparison of different conductive systems; Coated polymers; Intrinsically conductive materials; Recent developments. Modifying processing characteristics: 12 - CURING SYSTEMS FOR THERMOSETS The curing process; Curing agents, accelerators; Applications of organic peroxides; Inhibitors; Curing with/without accelerators; Selecting a curing system; Curing agents for epoxy systems; Thermoplastics crosslinking; New developments; Commercial trends. Modifying processing characteristics: 13 - CROSSLINKING, COUPLING, COMPATIBILISING Classification of antistatic additives; Conductive additives; ESD (electrostatic discharge) compounds; EMI (electromagnetic interference) compounds; Metallic additives; Comparison of different conductive systems; Coated polymers; Intrinsically conductive materials; Recent developments. Modifying processing characteristics: 14 - PLASTICISERS The function of plasticisers; Main types: phthalates, sebacates and adipates, fatty acid esters, oligomeric/polymeric, epoxies; Extenders and secondary plasticisers; Health and safety; Reducing the level of plasticisers; Recent developments; Commercial trends. Modifying processing characteristics: 15 - BLOWING AGENTS The function of blowing agents; Physical blowing agents; Chemical blowing agents; Structural foams; Syntactic structural foam; Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Flexible foams, Rigid foams, Pentane, Expanded polystyrene; New developments. Modifying processing characteristics: 16 - PROCESS MODIFIERS AND PROCESSING AIDS Impact modification; Elastomer modification: acrylic rubber, styrenics, polyolefins, polybutene; Dimer acids; Calcium carbonate; modification of CPEE polymers; silicon and phosphorus (PMMA); Impact modifiers for thermosetting resins; Processing aids; Clarifying/nucleating agents; Fluoropolymers; New developments: core-shell rubbers, silicones, modification of engineering thermoplastics. Modifying processing characteristics: 17 - LUBRICANTS, MOULD RELEASE AGENTS, SLIP AND ANTI-BLOCK Typical lubricants for thermoplastics; Lubricants for performance; Lubricants as processing aids: Metallic stearates, Hydrocarbons, Fatty acid amides and esters, Primary amides, Secondary amides, Acrylics, styrene copolymers, Polyolefin waxes, Polyamides, Fluoropolymers, Silicone, Boron nitride; Combination and modification; Release agents for thermosetting resins. Other types of additive: 18 - MISCELLANEOUS ADDITIVES Antibacterials and biocides; Degradation additives; Shrinkage modifiers, low profile additives; Improved barrier properties: gas barrier coatings, resorcinol additives, plasma technology; Hard coatings; Thermal insulation; Fragrance; Antifogging; Acoustic insulation; Surfactants, foam control additives; Mould-treatment agents. Other types of additive: 19 - ADDITIVES FOR RUBBER Process aids; Accelerators; Accelerator activators; Curing agents; Antidegradants; Fillers; Colourants; Other additives (retarders, blowing agents); New developments: silica. Other types of additive: 20 - ADDITIVES AND RECYCLING Stabilising, re-stabilising; Stabilisers; Improvement of properties; Desiccants; PE/PVC compatibilising; Melt flow/viscosity modification; Additives for identification of plastics; Equipment for recycling. B ackground information: 21 - MIXING AND COMPOUNDING Incorporation of additives; Mixing thermosets; Mixing thermoplastics: dry mixers, calendering, extrusion compounding, compounding mineral fillers, fine talc masterbatch, single- and twin-screw extruders, adjustable screw geometry; Colour dosing; Recent developments. Background information: 22 - HEALTH AND SAFETY Production, storage and transportation: fire/explosion, emissions, skin/body contact, dust; Hazards by additive: carbon black, titanium dioxide, flame retardants, glass fibre, styrene monomer, isocyanates; Use: toxicity - food contact, flame retardants, plasticisers; Disposal: landfill - heavy metals, incineration; Health and Safety at the workplace: some guidelines; New developments. Background information: 23 - TESTING AND LEGISLATION Summary of relevant environmental legislation; Blowing agents; Flame retardants; Heavy metals/cadmium pigments; Plasticisers; Food packaging; Migration levels; Medical products and packaging; Waste and recycling; Physical testing APPENDICES CONVERSION TABLES GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS FOR PLASTICS AND ELASTOMERS TRADE NAMES SELECTION CHARTS