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# Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties

**Joe Celko**

ISBN **1558609202**

Pages **240**

Description

Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL is an intermediate to advanced-level practitioner’s guide to mastering the two most challenging aspects of developing database applications in SQL. In this book, Celko illustrates several major approaches to representing trees and hierarchies and related topics that should be of interest to the working database programmer. These topics include hierarchical encoding schemes, graphs, IMS, binary trees, and more. This book covers SQL-92 and SQL:1999.

Contents

1 Graphs, Trees and Hierarchies 1.1 Modeling a Graph in a Program 1.1.1 Adjacency Lists for Graphs 1.1.2 Adjacency Arrays for Graphs 1.1.3 Finding a path in a General Graphs in SQL 1.2 Defining Tree and Hierarchies 1.2.1 Trees 1.2.2 Properties of Hierarchies 1.2.3 Types of Hierarchies 1.3 Note on Recursion 2 Adjacency List Model 2.1 The Simple Adjacency List Model 2.2 The Simple Adjacency List Model is not normalized. 2.2.1 UPDATE Anomalies 2.2.2 INSERT Anomalies 2.2.3 DELETE Anomalies 2.2.4 Structural Anomalies 2.3 Fixing the Adjacency List Model 2.3.1 Concerning the Use of NULLs 2.4 Navigation in Adjacency List Model 2.4.1 Cursors and Procedural Code 2.4.2 Self-joins 2.5 Inserting Nodes in the Adjacency List Model 2.6 Deleting Nodes in the Adjacency List Model 2.6.1 Deleting an Entire Subtree 2.6.2 Promoting a Subordinate after Deletion 2.6.3 Promoting an Entire Subtree after Deletion 2.7 Leveled Adjacency List Model 2.7.1 Numbering the levels 2.7.2 Aggregation in the Hierarchy 3 Path Enumeration Models 3.1 Finding the Depth of the Tree 3.2 Searching for Subordinates 3.3 Searching for Superiors 3.4 Deleting a Subtree 3.5 Deleting a Single Node 3.6 Inserting a New Node 3.7 Splitting up a Path String 3.8 The Edge Enumeration Model 3.9 XPath and XML 4 Nested Set Model of Hierarchies 4.1 Finding Root and Leaf Nodes 4.2 Finding Subtrees 4.3 Finding Levels and Paths in a Tree 4.3.1 Finding the Height of a Tree 4.3.2 Finding Levels of Subordinates 4.3.3 Finding Oldest and Youngest Subordinates 4.3.4 Finding a Path 4.3.5 Finding Relative Position 4.4 Functions in the Nested Sets Model 4.5 Deleting Nodes and Subtrees 4.5.1 Deleting Subtrees 4.5.2 Deleting a Single Node 4.5.3 Pruning a Set of Nodes from a Tree 4.6. Closing Gaps in the Tree 4.7. Summary Functions on Trees 4.7.1 Iterative Parts Update 4.7.2 Recursive Parts Update 4.8 Inserting and Updating Trees 4.8.1 Moving a Subtree within a Tree 4.8.2 MoveSubtree Second Version 4.8.3 Subtree Duplication 4.8.4 Swapping Siblings 4.9 Converting Nested Sets Model to Adjacency List 4.10 Converting Adjacency List to Nested Sets Model 4.11 Separation of Edges and Nodes 4.11.1 Multiple Structures 4.11.2 Multiple Nodes 4.12 Comparing Nodes and Structure 5 Frequent Insertion Trees 5.1 The Datatype of (lft, rgt) 5.1.1 Exploiting the Full Range of Integers 5.1.2 FLOAT, REAL or DOUBLE PRECISION Numbers 5.1.3 NUMERIC(p,s) or DECIMAL(p,s) Numbers 5.2 Computing the Spread to Use 5.2.1 Varying the Spread 5.2.2 Divisor Parameter 5.2.3 Divisor via Formula 5.2.4 Divisor via Table Lookup 5.2.5 Partial Reorganization 5.2.6 Rightward Spread Growth 5.3 Total Reorganization 5.3.1 Reorganization with Lookup Table 5.3.2 Reorganization with Recursion 5.4 Rational Numbers and Nested Intervals model 5.4.1 Partial Order mappings 5.4.2 Summation of Coordinates 5.4.3 Finding Parent Encoding and Sibling Number 5.4.4 Calculating the Enumerated Path and Distance between Nodes 5.4.5 Building a Hierarchy 5.4.6 Depth-first Enumeration by Left Interval Boundary 5.4.7 Depth-first enumeration by Right Interval boundary 5.4.8 All Descendants of a Node 6 The Linear Version of the Nested Sets model 6.1 Insertion and Deletion 6.2 Finding Paths 6.3 Finding Levels 6.4 Summary 7 Binary Trees 7.1 Binary Tree Traversals 7.2 Binary Tree Queries 7.2.1 Find Parent of a Node 7.2.2 Find Subtree at a Node 7.3 Deletion from a Binary Tree 7.4 Insertion into a Binary Tree 7.5 Heaps 7.6 Binary Tree Representation of Multiway Trees 7.7 The Stern-Brocot Numbers 8 Other Models for Trees 8.1 Adjacency List with Self-References 8.2 Subordinate Adjacency List 8.3 Hybrid Models 8.3.1. Adjacency and Nested Set Model 8.3.2. Nested Set with Depth Model 8.3.3. Adjacency and Depth Model 8.3.4. Computed Hybrid Models 8.4 General Graphs 8.4.1 Detecting Paths in a Convergent Graph 8.4.2 Detecting Directed Cycles 9 Proprietary Extensions for Trees 9.1 Oracle Tree Extensions 9.2 XDB Tree Extension 9.3 DB2 and the WITH Operator 9.4 Date's EXPLODE Operator 9.5 Tillquist and Kuo's Proposals 9.6 Microsoft Extensions 9.7 Other Methods 10 Hierarchies in Data Modeling 10.1 Types of Hierarchies 10.2 DDL Constraints 10.2.1 Uniqueness Constraints 10.2.2 Disjoint Hierarchies 10.2.3 Representing 1:1, 1:m, and n:m Relationships 11 Hierarchical Encoding Schemes 11.1 ZIP codes 11.2 Dewey Decimal Classification 11.3 Strength and Weaknesses 11.4 Shop Categories 11.5 Statistical Tools for Decision Trees 12 Hierarchical Database Systems (IMS) 12.1 Types of Databases 12.2 Database History 12.2.1. DL/I 12.2.2 Control Blocks 12.2.3 Data Communications 12.2.4 Application Programs 12.2.5 Hierarchical Databases 12.2.6 Strengths and Weaknesses 12.3 Sample Hierarchical Database 12.3.1 Department Database 12.3.2 Student Database 12.3.3 Design Considerations 12.3.4 Example Database Expanded 12.3.5 Data Relationships 12.3.6 Hierarchical Sequence 12.3.7 Hierarchical Data Paths 12.3.8 Database Records 12.3.9 Segment Format 12.3.10 Segment Definitions 12.4 Summary