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Joe Celko's SQL for Smarties

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Joe Celko's SQL for Smarties

Joe Celko

ISBN 1558605762
Pages 550


SQL for Smarties was hailed as the first book devoted explicitly to the advanced techniques you need to transform yourself into an expert SQL programmer. Now, in this fully updated second edition, SQL mastermind Joe Celko keeps you moving forward, using his entertaining, conversational style to teach you the best solutions to old and new challenges and to convey the way you need to think if you really want to get the most out of your SQL programming efforts.

Inside, logic- and set-based analyses replace the traditional, procedural approach to problem-solving, helping you make the conceptual leap that separates an SQL guru from the rest of the pack. As you catch on to Celko's approach, you'll devour what he has to say about some of SQL's toughest topics: how aggregate functions really work, the best way to work with NULLs, how and why to fake array structures, and much more.

This book gives special emphasis to SQL-92 and product-independent techniques that let you optimize performance or achieve highly specialized behavior, regardless of the RDBMS with which you work. If you're serious about SQL, you won't let SQL for Smarties out of your sight.

Preface Introduction The Nature of the SQL Language Programming Tips 1 Database Design 1.1 Schema and Table Creation 1.1.1 Schemas 1.1.2 Manipulating Tables DROP TABLE ALTER TABLE CREATE TABLE 1.1.3 Column Definitions DEFAULT Clause Column Constraints NOT NULL Constraint CHECK( ) Constraint UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY Constraints REFERENCES Clause 1.1.4 A Remark on Duplicate Rows 1.1.5 A Remark on UNIQUE Constraints versus Unique Indexes 1.2 Generating Sequential Numbers 2 Normalization 2.1 Functional and Multivalued Dependencies 2.2 First Normal Form (1NF) 2.2.1 Note on Repeated Groups 2.3 Second Normal Form (2NF) 2.4 Third Normal Form (3NF) 2.5 Case Tools for Normalization 2.6 Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) 2.7 Fourth Normal Form (4NF) 2.8 Fifth Normal Form (5NF) 2.9 Domain-Key Normal Form (DKNF) 2.10 Practical Hints for Normalization 2.11 Practical Hints for Denormalization 3 Numeric Data in SQL 3.1 Numeric Types 3.2 Numeric Type Conversion 3.2.1 Rounding and Truncating 3.2.2 CAST( ) Function 3.3 Four Function Arithmetic 3.4 Arithmetic and NULLs 3.5 Converting Values to and from NULL 3.5.1 NULLIF( ) Function 3.5.2 COALESCE( ) Function 3.6 Vendor Math Functions 3.6.1 Number Theory Operators 3.6.2 Exponential Functions 3.6.3 Scaling Functions 3.6.4 Generator Functions 4 Temporal Datatypes in SQL 4.1 Tips for Handling Dates, Timestamps, and Times 4.1.1 Date Format Standards 4.1.2 Handling Timestamps 4.1.3 Handling Times 4.2 Queries with Dates 4.3 Personal Calendars 4.4 Time Series 4.4.1 Gaps in a Time Series 4.4.2 Continuous Time Periods 4.4.3 Locating Dates 4.4.4 First and Last Days of a Month 4.5 Julian Dates 4.6 Date and Time Extraction Functions 4.7 Other Temporal Functions 4.8 Problems with the Year 2000 4.8.1 The Zeros 4.8.2 Leap Year 4.8.3 The Millennium 4.8.4 Weird Dates in Legacy Data 5 Character Datatypes in SQL 5.1 Problems with SQL Strings 5.1.1 Problems of String Equality 5.1.2 Problems of String Ordering 5.1.3 Problems of String Grouping 5.2 Standard String Functions 5.3 Common Vendor Extensions 5.3.1 Phonetic Matching Soundex Functions The Original Soundex An Improved Soundex Metaphone Other Pattern-Matching Predicates 5.4 Cutter Tables 6 NULLs-Missing Data in SQL 6.1 Empty and Missing Tables 6.2 Missing Values in Columns 6.3 Context and Missing Values 6.4 Comparing NULLs 6.5 NULLs and Logic 6.5.1 NULLS in Subquery Predicates 6.5.2 SQL-92 Solutions 6.6 Math and NULLs 6.7 Functions and NULLs 6.8 NULLs and Host Languages 6.9 Design Advice for NULLs 6.9.1 Avoiding NULLs from the Host Programs 6.10 A Note on Multiple NULL Values 7 Other Expressions 7.1 The CASE Expression 7.1.1 The COALESCE( ) and NULLIF( ) Functions 7.1.2 CASE Expressions with GROUP BY 7.1.3 CASE, CHECK( ) Clauses and Logical Implication 7.1.4 The Oracle DECODE( ) Function 7.2 Subquery Expressions and Constants 7.3 Rozenshtein Characteristic Functions 8 Other Schema Objects 8.1 Schema Creation 8.1.1 Schema Tables 8.2 Temporary Tables 8.3 CREATE ASSERTION 8.4 CREATE DOMAIN 8.5 TRIGGERs 8.6 CREATE PROCEDURE 9 Table Operations 9.1 DELETE FROM Statement 9.1.1 The DELETE FROM Clause 9.1.2 The WHERE Clause 9.1.3 Deleting Based on Data in a Second Table 9.1.4 Deleting within the Same Table Redundant Duplicates in a Table Redundant Duplicates Removal with ROWID 9.1.5 Deleting in Multiple Tables without Referential Integrity 9.2 INSERT INTO Statement 9.2.1 INSERT INTO Clause 9.2.2 The Nature of Inserts 9.2.3 Bulk Load and Unload Utilities 9.3 UPDATE Statement 9.3.1 The UPDATE Clause 9.3.2 The WHERE Clause 9.3.3 The SET Clause 9.3.4 Updating with a Second Table 9.3.5 Using the CASE Expression in UPDATEs 9.3.6 Updating within the Same Table 9.3.7 Updating a Primary Key 9.4 A Note on Flaws in a Common Vendor Extension 10 Comparison or Theta Operators 10.1 Converting Datatypes 10.2 Row Comparisons in SQL-92 11 Valued Predicates 11.1 IS NULL Predicate 11.1.1 Sources of NULLs 12 LIKE and SIMILAR Predicates 12.1 Tricks with Patterns 12.2 Results with NULL Values and Empty Strings 12.3 LIKE Is Not Equality 12.4 Avoiding the LIKE Predicate with a Join 12.5 Other Pattern-Matching Predicates 13 BETWEEN and OVERLAPS Predicates 13.1 BETWEEN Predicate 13.1.1 Results with NULL Values 13.1.2 Results with Empty Sets 13.1.3 Programming Tips 13.2 OVERLAPS Predicate 13.2.1 Time Periods and OVERLAPS Predicate 14 The [NOT] IN Predicate 14.1 Optimizing the IN Predicate 14.2 Replacing ORs with the IN Predicate 14.3 NULLs and the IN Predicate 14.4 IN Predicate and Referential Constraints 15 EXISTS ( ) Predicate 15.1 EXISTS and NULLs 15.2 EXISTS and JOINs 15.3 EXISTS and Quantifiers 15.4 EXISTS( ) and Referential Constraints 16 Quantified Subquery Predicate 16.1 Scalar Subquery Comparisons 16.2 Quantifiers and Missing Data 16.3 The ALL Predicate and Extrema Functions 16.4 UNIQUE Predicate 17 The SELECT Statement 17.1 SELECT and JOINs 17.1.1 One-Level SELECT Statement 17.1.2 Correlated Subqueries in a SELECT Statement 17.1.3 SQL-92 SELECT Statement 17.1.4 The ORDER BY Clause 17.2 OUTER JOINs 17.2.1 Vendor Syntax for OUTER JOINs 17.2.2 SQL-92 Syntax for JOINs 17.2.3 NULLs and OUTER JOINs 17.2.4 NATURAL versus Conditional OUTER JOINs 17.2.5 Self-OUTER JOINs 17.2.6 Two or More OUTER JOINs 17.2.7 OUTER JOINs and Aggregate Functions 17.2.8 FULL OUTER JOIN 17.2.9 WHERE Clause OUTER JOIN Operators 17.3 Old versus New JOIN Syntax 17.4 Exotic JOINs 17.4.1 Self Non-Equi-JOINs 17.4.2 Range JOINs 17.4.3 JOINs by Function Calls 17.4.4 The UNION JOIN 17.5 Dr. Codd's T-JOIN 17.5.1 The Croatian Solution 17.5.2 The Swedish Solution 17.5.3 The Columbian Solution 18 VIEWs and TEMPORARY TABLEs 18.1 VIEWs in Queries 18.2 Updatable and Read-Only VIEWs 18.3 Types of VIEWs 18.3.1 Single-Table Projection and Restriction 18.3.2 Calculated Columns 18.3.3 Translated Columns 18.3.4 Grouped VIEWs 18.3.5 UNION VIEWs 18.3.6 JOINs in VIEWs 18.3.7 Nested VIEWs 18.4 How VIEWs Are Handled in the Database System 18.4.1 View Column List 18.4.2 VIEW Materialization 18.4.3 In-Line Text Expansion 18.4.4 Pointer Structures 18.4.5 Indexing and Views 18.5 WITH CHECK OPTION Clause 18.6 Dropping VIEWs 18.7 TEMPORARY TABLEs 18.8 Hints on Using VIEWs and TEMPORARY TABLEs 18.8.1 Using VIEWs 18.8.2 Using TEMPORARY TABLEs 18.8.3 Flattening a Table with a VIEW 19 Partitioning Data 19.1 Coverings and Partitions 19.1.1 Partitioning by Ranges Range Tables Single-Column Range Tables 19.1.2 Partition by Functions 19.2 Relational Division 19.2.1 Division with a Remainder 19.2.2 Exact Division 19.2.3 Note on Performance 19.2.4 Todd's Division 19.2.5 Division with JOINs 19.2.6 Division with Set Operators 20 Grouping Operations 20.1 GROUP BY Clause 20.1.1 NULLs and Groups 20.1.2 GROUP BY and HAVING 20.1.3 Grouped VIEWs for Multiple Aggregation Levels 20.1.4 Sorting and GROUP BY 20.1.5 Grouped Subqueries for Multiple Aggregation Levels 20.1.6 Grouping on Computed Columns 20.2 Ungrouping a Table 20.2.1 Ungrouping by Splitting a Table 20.2.2 Ungrouping Using a Join 21 Aggregate Functions 21.1 COUNT Functions 21.2 SUM Functions 21.3 AVG Functions 21.3.1 Averages with Empty Groups 21.4 Extrema Functions 21.4.1 Simple Extrema Functions 21.4.2 Generalized Extrema Functions 21.4.3 Multiple-Criteria Extrema Functions 21.5 Other Aggregate Functions 21.5.1 The LIST() Aggregate Function The LIST() Function with a Procedure The LIST() Function by Crosstabs 21.5.2 The PROD() Aggregate Function PROD() Function by Expressions The PROD() Aggregate Function by Logorithms 22 Auxiliary Tables 22.1 The Sequence Table 22.1.1 An Example of the Sequence Table 22.2 The Calendar Table 22.2.1 An Example of the Calendar Table 22.3 Interpolation with Auxiliary Function Tables 23 Statistics in SQL 23.1 The Mode 23.2 The Median 23.2.1 Date's First Median 23.2.2 Celko's First Median 23.2.3 Date's Second Median 23.2.4 Murchison's Median 23.2.5 Celko's Second Median 23.2.6 Vaughan's Median with VIEWs 23.2.7 Median with Characteristic Function 23.2.8 Celko's Third Median 23.3 Variance and Standard Deviation 23.4 Average Deviation 23.5 Cumulative Statistics 23.5.1 Running Totals 23.5.2 Running Differences 23.5.3 Cumulative Percentages 23.5.4 Rankings and Related Statistics 23.6 Cross Tabulations 23.6.1 Crosstabs by Cross Join 23.6.2 Crosstabs by Outer Joins 23.6.3 Crosstabs by Subquery 24 Regions, Runs and Sequences 24.1 Finding Subregions of Size n 24.2 Finding Regions of Maximum Size 24.3 Bound Queries 24.4 Run and Sequence Queries 25 Array Structures in SQL 25.1 Representing Arrays in SQL 25.2 Matrix Operations in SQL 25.2.1 Matrix Equality 25.2.2 Matrix Addition 25.2.3 Matrix Multiplication 25.2.4 Other Matrix Operations 25.3 Flattening a Table into an Array 25.4 Comparing Arrays in Table Format 26 Set Operations 26.1 UNION and UNION ALL 26.1.1 Duplicates and Union Operators 26.1.2 Order of Execution 26.1.3 Mixed UNION and UNION ALL Operators 26.2 Set Difference Operator 26.2.1 Set Difference with Outer Join 26.3 Intersection 26.4 A Note on ALL and SELECT DISTINCT 27 Subsets 27.1 Every nth Item in a Table 27.2 Picking Random Rows from a Table 27.3 The Contains Operators 27.3.1 Proper Subset Operators 27.3.2 Set Equality 28 Adjacency List Model of Trees in SQL 28.1 Adjacency List in a Single Table 28.2 Finding the Root Node 28.3 Finding Leaf Nodes 28.4 Finding Levels in a Tree 28.5 Functions in the Adjacency List Model 28.6 Tree Operations 28.6.1 Subtree Deletion 28.6.2 Subtree Insertion 28.7 Vendor Tree Extensions 28.7.1 Oracle Tree Extensions 28.7.2 XDB Tree Extension 28.7.3 DB2's WITH Operator 28.7.4 Date's Explode Operator 28.7.5 Tillquist and Kuo's Proposals 28.8 The Transitive Closure Model 28.8.1 Estimating Table Size 28.8.2 Deleting Nodes 28.8.3 Subtree Insertion 28.8.4 Summary Functions 28.8.5 The Transitive Closure Model with Fixed Depth 29 Nested Set Model of Trees in SQL 29.1 Finding Root and Leaf Nodes 29.2 Finding Subtrees 29.3 Finding Levels and Paths in a Tree 29.3.1 Finding the Height of a Tree 29.3.2 Finding Immediate Subordinates 29.3.3 Finding Oldest and Youngest Subordinates 29.3.4 Finding a Path 29.4 Functions in the Nested Set Model 29.5 Deleting Nodes and Subtrees 29.5.1 Deleting Subtrees 29.5.2 Deleting a Single Node 29.6 Closing Gaps in the Tree 29.7 Summary Functions on Trees 29.8 Inserting and Updating Trees 29.9 The Linear Version of the Nested Set Model 29.10 Converting Adjacency List to Nested Set Model 30 Graphs in SQL 30.1 Two-Table Representation of a Graph 30.2 Path Enumeration in a Graph 30.3 Path Aggregation in a Graph 30.4 Node Splitting 31 Optimizing Code 31.1 Access Methods 31.1.1 Sequential Access 31.1.2 Indexed Access 31.1.3 Hashed Indexes 31.1.4 Bit Vector Indexes 31.2 Expressions and Unnested Queries 31.2.1 Use Simple Expressions 31.2.2 String Expressions 31.3 Give Extra Join Information in Queries 31.4 Index Tables Carefully 31.5 Watch the IN Predicate 31.6 Avoid UNIONs 31.7 Prefer Joins over Nested Queries 31.8 Avoid Expressions on Indexed Columns 31.9 Avoid Sorting 31.10 Avoid Cross Joins 31.11 Learn to Use Indexes Carefully 31.12 Order Indexes Carefully 31.13 Recompile Static SQL after Schema Changes 31.14 Temporary Tables Are Handy Appendix: Readings and Resources General References Logic Mathematical Techniques Random Numbers Scales and Measurements Missing Values Graph Theory Introductory SQL Books Optimizing Queries Temporal Data and the Year 2000 Problem Books Newsletters SQL Programming Techniques Classics Updatable Views Theory, Normalization, and Advanced Database Topics Books on SQL-92 Standards and Related Groups Web Sites Related to SQL References Index About the Author Series: The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems