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THE ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCE OF DRINKING WATER
Patrick Sullivan, Franklin Agardy, James Clark
In today’s chemically dependent society, environmental studies demonstrate that drinking water in developed countries contains numerous industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and chemicals from water treatment processes. This poses a real threat. As a result of the ever-expanding list of chemical and biochemical products industry, current drinking water standards that serve to preserve our drinking water quality are grossly out of date.
Environmental Science of Drinking Water demonstrates why we need to make a fundamental change in our approach toward protecting our drinking water. Factual and circumstantial evidence showing the failure of current drinking water standards to adequately protect human health is presented along with analysis of the extent of pollution in our water resources and drinking water. The authors also present detail of the currently available state-of-the-art technologies which, if fully employed, can move us toward a healthier future.
Foreward Preface Acknowledgements 1. The Water We Drink Natural Water Water and the Public Health References 2. Water Pollution Human Waste and Pollution Industrial Pollution Wastewater Control and Treatment Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution Pollution Sources and Water Quality Summary References 3. Water Protection The Basics of Water Supply Basic Water Treatment Beyond Basic Water Treatment An Issue of Equality Chemical Monitoring and Warnings for Regulated Pollutants The National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database Unregulated Pollutants and Monitoring Regulations Setting New Drinking Water Standards Why Consumers Should be Concerned Approaches to Mitigate Chemical Exposure Water Pollution and Risk References 4. Living with the Risk of Polluted Water The Burden of Proof Permissible Pollution The Dose Makes the Poison Basic Concepts of Dose Mechanism of Toxicity Biotransformation and Detoxification Toxicity and Defining Standards Timing is Everything Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Pharmaceutical Pollutants Pharmaceuticals Detected in the Environment Living with Risk Population, Pollution, Risk, and Precaution The Risk Assessment Process Summary References 5. Managing Risk and Drinking Water Quality Learning from the Past and Present Risk and Economics An Alternative Approach Consumer-Based Protection Potential Action by the Water Industry Potential Governmental Actions An Alternative Risk Management Program References Appendix 1-1 Average Elemental Abundance in the Earth’s Crust Appendix 1-2 Chemical Compounds with Established Water Quality Criteria Appendix 1-3 USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater and Human Consumption of Water + Organism: 2002 Appendix 2-1 Dow Industrial Chemicals, Solvents and Dyes in 1938 Appendix 2-2 USEPA List of Priority Pollutants Appendix 2-3 Summary of Surface Water Data Appendix 2-4 Summary of Shallow Groundwater Data Appendix 2-5 Organic Chemicals Found in Landfill Leachate and Gas Appendix 2-6 Unregulated Pollutants Discharged to or Identified in Water Resources Appendix 2-7 Chemicals Known to the State of California to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity Appendix 2-8 Regulated Pesticides in Food with Residue Tolerances Appendix 2-9 Comparison of Chemicals Required to be Monitored in Groundwater by RCRA Appendix 3-1 General Drinking Water Monitoring and Warning Requirements (as of 2002) Appendix 3-2 National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database Data on Primary Water Quality Standards (May 18, 2001) Appendix 3-3 National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database: Data on Unregulated Compounds Appendix 3-4 Examples of Bottled Mineral Water Chemistry Appendix 3-5 Examples of Bottled Water Chemistry Appendix 3-6 Trace Element Analysis of Mineral Waters (ppb) That Appear in Either Appendix 3-4 or Appendix 3-5 Appendix 4-1 Glossary of Terms Adapted from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (1993) Appendix 4-2 Chemical Examples on the Toxicology of Drinking Water Standards Appendix 4-3 Suspected Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Appendix 4-4 U.S. Geological Survey Target Compounds, National Reconnaissance of Emerging Contaminants in U.S. Streams (2000) Glossary Index