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Environmental Contaminants

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Environmental Contaminants

Daniel Vallero

ISBN 0127100571
Pages 832

This book serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems.

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Preface Prologue: The Challenge Acknowledgments Author’s Note on Discussion Boxes, Equations, and Concentration Units Part I: An Environmental Policy Primer 1. Scientific and Engineering Perspectives of Environmental Contaminants a. The Evolution and Progress of Environmental Science and Engineering b. What is a Contaminant? c. Understanding Policy by Understanding Science d. Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science e. Environmental Assessment and Intervention f. Introduction to Environmental Policy g. Urban Air Pollution h. Acid Deposition i. Protection the Ozone Layer j. Water Quality Legislation k. Solid and Hazardous Wastes Laws l. Environmental Product and Consumer Protection Laws Part II: Fundamentals of Environmental Science and Engineering Introduction to Part II 2. Fundamentals of Environmental Physics a. Principles and Concepts of Energy and Matter Important to the Environment b. Mass and Work c. Environmental Mechanics 3. Applied Contaminant Physics: Fluid Properties a. Physical Properties of Environmental Fluids b. Velocity c. Discharge and Flow d. Pressure e. Acceleration f. Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration g. Density h. Specific Gravity 4. Environmental Equilibrium, Partitioning, and Balances a. Fundamentals of Environmental Equilibria b. Solubility as Physical and Chemical Phenomenon c. Intramolecular Bonds, Intermolecular Forces, and Molecular Dipole Moments d. Fluid Solubility/Density Relationships e. Environmental Thermodynamics f. The Environmental Mass Balance Reaction Term 5. Movement of Contaminants in the Environment a. Environmental Chemodynamics Models b. Selecting Units of Mass and Concentrations in Chemdynamics c. Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry’s Law d. How Contaminants Move in the Environment e. Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks, and Sources f. Combining Transport and Degradation Processes Using Half-Lives and Rate Constants 6. Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry a. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry b. Organic Chemistry 7. Chemical Reactions in the Environment a. Environmental Ionic Reactions b. Environmental Acid and Base Chemistry c. Precipitation Reactions in Environmental Engineering d. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions e. Biological Redox Reactions f. Environmental Metal Chemistry 8. Biological Principles of Environmental Contamination a. The Cell b. The “Bio???Terms c. Biomarkers of Contaminants d. Accelerated Biodegradation: Bioremediation e. Biocriteria: A New Way to Determine Environmental Quality Part III: Contaminant Risk 9. Contaminant Hazards a. Environmental Toxicology b. Toxicity Testing c. Hazardous Waste Characterisitics d. Bio-Effective Dose e. Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics f. Environmental Epidemiology g. Contaminant Groupings h. Carcinogens i. Chronic Noncancer Health Endpoints j. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors k. Neurotoxins l. Immunotoxins m. Ecological Toxicity 10. Contaminant Exposure and Risk Calculations a. Exposure Assessment b. Calculating Risk c. Applying Cancer Risk Calculations to Cleanup Levels d. Non-Cancer Hazard and Risk Calculations e. Comprehensive Risk Communication Part IV: Interventions to Address Environmental Contamination 11. Contaminant Sampling and Analysis a. Environmental Monitoring b. Laboratory Analysis c. Sources of Uncertainty d. Chemiluminescence and Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization e. Integration of Monitoring Techniques: Chmiluminescence 12. Intervention: Manging the Risks of Environmental Contamination a. A Template for Cleaning Up Contaminants b. Characterizing Contaminants in the Environment c. Estimating Contaminant Migration d. Treatability Tests e. Contaminant Treatment and Control Approaches f. Thermal Processing: The Science, Engineering and Technology of Contaminant Destruction g. Microbiological Processing: The Science, Engineering, and Technology of Contaminant Biotreatment h. Hazardous Waste Storage Landfills: Examples of the Science, Engineering, and Technology of Long-Term Storage of Contaminated Media i. Siting j. Ex Situ and In Situ Treatment 13. Environmental Decisions and Professionalism a. Communicating Scientific Information b. Environmental Information Management 14. Epilogue: Benzene Metabolism Revisited a. The Sensitivity Analysis: An Important Step Beyond Stoichiometry b. Interdependence between a Contaminant and a Substrate Glossary of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Terminology Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Appendix 3. Appendix 4. Appendix 5. Appendix 6. Appendix 7. Appendix 8. Appendix 9. Index