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# Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging

**Thomas Szabo**

ISBN **0126801452**

Pages **576**

Description

Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides a comprehensive introduction to and a state-of-the-art review of the essential science and signal processing principles of diagnostic ultrasound. The progressive organization of the material serves beginners in medical ultrasound science and graduate students as well as design engineers, medical physicists, researchers, clinical collaborators, and the curious.

This it the most comprehensive and extensive work available on the core science and workings of advanced digital imaging systems, exploring the subject in a unified, consistent and interrelated manner. From its antecedents to the modern day use and prospects for the future, this it the most up-to-date text on the subject.

Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides in-depth overviews on the following major aspects of diagnostic ultrasound: absorption in tissues; acoustical and electrical measurements; beamforming, focusing, and imaging; bioeffects and ultrasound safety; digital imaging systems and terminology; Doppler and Doppler imaging; nonlinear propagation, beams and harmonic imaging; scattering and propagation through realistic tissues; and tissue characterization.

Contents

1. Introduction Introduction Echo Ranging of the Body Ultrasound Portrait Photographers Ultrasound Cinematographers Modern Ultrasound Imaging Developments Enabling Technologies for Ultrasounds Imaging Ultrasound Imaging Safety Ultrasound and Other Diagnostic Imaging Modalities Conclusion Bibliography References 2. Overview Introduction Fourier Transform Building Blocks Central Diagram References 3. Acoustic Wave Propagation Introduction to Waves Plane Waves in Liquids and Solids Elastic Waves in Solids Conclusion Bibliography References 4. Attenuation Losses in Tissues Losses in Both Frequency and Time Domains Tissue Models Pulses in Lossy Media Penetration and Time Gain Compensation Hooke’s Law for Viscoelastic Media Wave Equations for Tissues Referenes 5. Transducers Introduction to Transducers Resonant Modes of Transducers Equivalent Circuit Transducer Model Transducer Design Considerations Transducer Pulses Equations for Piezoelectric Media Piezoelectric Materials Comparison of Piezoelectric Materials Transducer Advanced Topics Bibliography References 6. Beamforming What is Diffraction? Fresnel Approximation of Spatial Diffraction Integral Rectangular Aperture Apodization Circular Apertures Focusing Angular Spectrum of Waves Diffraction Loss Limited Diffraction Beam Bibliography References 7. Array Beamforming Why Arrays? Diffraction in the Time Domain Circular Radiators in the Time Domain Arrays Pulse-Echo Beamforming Two-Dimensional Arrays Baffled General Approaches Nonideal Array Performance Bibliography References 8. Wave Scattering and Imaging Introduction Scattering of Objects Role of Transducer Diffraction and Focusing Role of Imaging Bibliography References 9. Scattering From Tissue and Tissue Characterization Introduction Scattering from Tissues Properties of and Propagation in Heterogeneous Tissue Array Processing of Scattered Pulse-Echo Signals Tissue Characterization Methods Applications of Tissue Characterization Elastography Aberration Correction Wave Equations for Tissue Bibliography References 10. Imaging Systems and Applications Introduction Trends in Imaging Systems Major Controls Block Diagram Major Modes Clinical Applications Transducers and Image Formats Front End Scanner Back End Advanced Signal Processing Alternate Imaging System Architectures Bibliography References 11. Doppler Models Introduction The Doppler Effect Scattering from Flowing Blood in Vessels Continuous Wave Doppler Pulsed Wave Doppler Comparison of Pulsed and Continuous Wave Doppler Ultrasound Color Flow Imaging Non-Doppler Visualization of Blood Flow Conclusion Bibliography References 12. Nonlinear Acoustics and Imaging Introduction What is Nonlinear Propagation? Propagation in a Nonlinear Medium with Losses Propagation of Beams in Nonlinear Media Harmonic Imaging Harmonic Signal Processing Other Nonlinear Effects Nonlinear Wave Equations and Simulation Models Summary Bibliography References 13. Ultrasonic Exposimetry and Acoustic Measurements Introduction to Measurements Materials Characterization Transducers Acoustic Output Measurements Performance Measurements Thought Experiments Bibliography References 14. Ultrasound Contrast Agents Introduction Microbubble as Linear Resonator Microbubble as Nonlinear Resonator Cavitation and Bubble Destruction Ultrasound Contrast Agents Imaging with Ultrasound Contrast Agents Therapeutic Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Smart Bubbles Equations of Motion for Contrast Agents Conclusions Bibliography References 15. Ultrasound-Induced Bioeffects Introduction Ultrasound-Induced Bioeffects: Observation to Regulation Thermal Effects Mechanical Effects The Output Display Standard Comparison of Medical Ultrasound Modalities Primary and Secondary Ultrasound-Induced Bioeffects Equations for Predicting Temperature Rise Conclusions Bibliography References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Index